Societal Benefits of Bike Share

 

Bath (11)

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Statistics on the contribution to eight key policy areas

The benefits of bike share have been recognised in the following evidence and research:

  • Health & Wellbeing

    • 68% of users had not cycled for their current trips prior to the launch of Dublinbikes & 63% who owned their own bike said they purchased it as a result of using the scheme. (Murphy & Usher 2015)
    • 78% of users reported starting to cycle or cycle more as a result of the scheme in London. (TfL 2015)
    • 72% of users in 4 North American cities reporting cycling more as a result of a bike share scheme. (Shaheen et al 2012)
    • The health benefits of attracting new cyclist have been estimated as £370 per cyclist pa (DFT guidance for 2016/17 on 2010 prices)
  • Supporting Public Transport by either:

    • Relieving pressure on overcrowded public transport routes
    • And increasing use of public transport with multi-mode trips
    • A study in two US cities showed that bike share complements public transport by acting as a last mile connector to increase bus/train use ridership in low density suburbs and substituting its use on over-crowded city routes. (Shaheen & Martin 2014)
    • 56% of users in Dublin combined bike share with train and 35% with bus travel. (Murphy & Usher 2015)
    • Bike share usage was higher at London docking stations near transport hubs (Goodman & Cheshire 2014)
  • Reductions in car use

    • An average of 40% of bike share members in 4 North American cities drove less after joining the scheme: Montreal (36%), Toronto (25%), Washington, DC (41%), Minneapolis (52%). (Shaheen & Martin 2014)
    • The presence of a Capital Bikeshare dock within a given neighbourhood reduces traffic congestion by as much as 2–3% on average. (Hamilton & Wichman 2015)
    • 11% of Oxonbike users would have done the same trip by car if the bike share scheme was not available. (OXON bike survey 2014)
  • Economic benefits

    • Each bike share trip is estimated to have a value of £0.54 pa including benefits from reduced congestion, accidents, carbon and improved air quality, based on DfT guidance
    • The health benefits of attracting new cyclist have been estimated as £370 per cyclist pa (DFT guidance for 2016/17 on 2010 prices)
    • 70% of businesses reported a positive impact of bike share on the neighbourhood (Buehler & Hamre 2014)
    • 20% of businesses and 23% of users reported a direct impact of spending. (Buehler & Hamre 2014)
    • A study in Minnesota reported an extra spend of US$1.20/user/week in proximity of bike share stations. (Buehler & Hamre 2014)
    • Time saving was a benefit of bike share for 73% of users in Washington DC. (Buehler & Hamre 2014)
    • The presence of a Capital Bikeshare dock within a given neighbourhood reduces traffic congestion by as much as 2–3% on average. (Hamilton & Wichman 2015)
    • Absenteeism is reduced by 0.4 days off per year by those who cycle (or walk) (DfT)
    • Bike share schemes offer enhancement to public realm through lighting and security. (TfL)
  • Solving the “First / last mile” connectivity issues

    • Bike share is used in conjunction with public transport by acting as a last mile connector in low density suburbs thus offering more affordable and flexible travel choices. (Shaheen & Martin 2014)
    • Bike share usage was higher at London docking stations near transport hubs (Goodman & Cheshire 2014)
    • Convenience consistently emerges as key motivating factor for using bike sharing. (Fisherman et all 2013 /Shaheen et al 2014)
    • Speed and convenience were main reasons for joining the bike share scheme. (TfL 2015)
    • Bike share is particularly important to destinations with limited car parking or in conjunction with busy public transport with limited space for cycles.
  • Improving access to jobs, education and amenities

    • For those who do not own a bike or car, bike share will help overcome mobility issues and open up a wider range of opportunities. Often free bike access has been offered via employment services. (eg Nottingham city card)
    • Bike share is used in conjunction with public transport by acting as a last mile connector in low density suburbs thus offering more affordable and flexible travel to those who can’t access a car. (Shaheen & Martin 2014)
    • Residents in highly-deprived areas of London use rose from 2.9% to 4.3% when stations were added in their local areas – and that this local access is important because very few individuals from deprived areas regularly commute into London from the outside. (Goodman and Cheshire 2014)
  • Developing tourism

    • A visiting cyclist spends on average £25 / day locally compared to a car borne visitor’s £7.30 as they can’t bring what they need with them and feel hungrier. European Cycling Federation.
    • Bike share tourists trips particularly by women. In London female members, predominantly cycle within London’s parks, with round trips with ¼ being made at weekends (Beecham and Wood 2014)
    • Bicycle sharing Strategic Report Malta due to report in 2016. http://www.seemore-project.eu/
  • Improving road safety

    • Five bike-share cities had a total drop in reported cyclist injuries of 28 percent, versus a 2 percent increase in the control cities. (Graves et al 2014)
    • 93% of Dublinbikes users said that using the scheme had increased their awareness of cyclists on the road while driving (Murphy & Usher 2015)

Notes

Created with thanks to Miriam Ricci, Centre for Transport & Society, Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of the West of England, (Bike Sharing: A review of evidence on impacts and processes of implementation and operation 2015)

References:

https://www.carplus.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Bike-sharing-a-review-of-evidence-Dr-M-Ricci-UWE-2015-shareable.pdf

Buehler, R. & Hamre, A. (2014). Economic Benefits of Capital Bikeshare: A Focus on Users and Businesses. Mid-Atlantic Universities Transportation Centre, U.S. [Online]

Elliot Martin and Susan Shaheen. 2014. “Evaluating Public Transit Modal Shift Dynamics in Response to Bikesharing: A Tale of Two Cities,” Journal of Transportation Geography, 41: 315–324.

Fishman, E., Washington, S. & Haworth, N. (2013). Bike Share: A Synthesis of the Literature. Transport Reviews, 33, 148-65

Goodman, A. and Cheshire, J. (2014) Inequalities in the London bicycle sharing system revisited: impacts of extending the scheme to poorer areas but then doubling prices. Journal of Transport Geography, 41 (0), pp.272-279.

Susan Shaheen, Stacey Guzman, and Hua Zhang. 2010. “Bikesharing in Europe, the Americas, and Asia: Past, Present, and Future,” Transportation Research Record, 2143: 159–167.

Susan Shaheen, Elliot Martin, Nelson Chan, Adam Cohen, and Mike Pogodzinski. 2014. “Public Bikesharing in North America during a Period of Rapid Expansion: Understanding Business Models, Industry Trends, and User Impacts,” Mineta Transportation Institute Report 12-29.

Murphy E. & Usher J. (2015). The Role of Bicycle-sharing in the City: Analysis of the Irish Experience. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 9(2), 116-125

Timothy L. Hamilton, Casey J. WichmanBicycle Infrastructure and Traffic Congestion: Evidence from DC’s Capital Bikeshare. Aug 20, 2015 |

Graves el Al http://www.streetsblog.net/2014/06/16/cyclist-injuries-declined-more-in-cities-with-bike-share-than-without-it/

Schoner & Harrison 2012 Sharing to Grow Sharing to Grow: Economic Activity Associated with Nice Ride Bike Share Stations. http://conservancy.umn.edu/handle/11299/135470